Responsible Leaders for Inclusive Globalization: Cases in Nicaragua and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Posted: 29 May 2011 Last revised: 18 May 2013

Date Written: 2010


The current globalization process excludes a significant part of humanity, but organizations can contribute to a more inclusive form by means of dialogue with other organizations to create economic and social value. This article explores the main leadership traits (visions, roles and virtues) necessary for this dialogue. This exploration consists of a comparison between two theoretical approaches and their illustration with two cases. The theoretical approaches compared are Responsible Leadership, a management theory focused on the contribution of business leaders to create a better society as developed by Maak and Pless; and the Work of Translation, a sociological theory which stresses the need for dialogue between organizations to build an alternative to hegemonic or the so-called neo-liberal globalization as formulated by Santos. Both approaches, in what seems an unlikely pairing at first, are compared in terms of their perspectives, diagnoses of the present situation, the main task to be performed by leaders, styles of this task and leadership outcomes. The illustrative cases include a federation of co-ops in Nicaragua and an employer organization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We contend that, although these economic development organizations are not private firms, the leadership characteristics of their respective leaders are highly valuable and inspiring for business leaders and multinational corporations wishing to act responsibly at the local and global levels, thus contributing to this more inclusive form of globalization.

Keywords: inclusive globalization, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nicaragua, Responsible Leadership, Work of Translation

Suggested Citation

Lozano, Josep M., Responsible Leaders for Inclusive Globalization: Cases in Nicaragua and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010). Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 93, 2010. Available at SSRN:

Josep M. Lozano (Contact Author)

ESADE Business School ( email )

Av. de Pedralbes, 60-62
Barcelona, 08034

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