アメリカ合衆国における連邦憲法と州憲法の関係のダイナミクス - 婚姻平等(同性婚)を例として (Relational Dynamics between the U.S. Federal and State Constitutions: The Trajectory of Marriage Equality Cases from Baehr to Obergefell)

Hōritsu Jihō, (法律時報), Vol. 87, No.5, 91-97, May 2015

7 Pages Posted: 1 Jan 2016

See all articles by Mark Levin

Mark Levin

University of Hawaii at Manoa - William S. Richardson School of Law

Toru Enoki

Independent

Date Written: May 1, 2015

Abstract

Japanese Abstract: アメリカ合衆国は50もの州が存在する連邦国家であるゆえ、同国には連邦憲法(合衆国憲法)の他に、各州にも州憲法が存在する。ゆえにアメリカ憲法を理解しようと思えば、連邦憲法だけでなく、州憲法の役割を見なければならない。本稿で具体例として取り上げたハワイ州憲法は、人権保障の見地から、州内にとっては勿論、他の地域にとっても、重要なものである。また「相当かつ独立の州法上の根拠」法理も、アメリカの人権保障に大きな役割を果たしている。ハワイ州から始まった婚姻平等(同性婚)はその重要な、かつ、時宜にかなった例である。アメリカにおいて婚姻平等は、州議会による立法と、州裁判所が州憲法適合性の点から婚姻に関する州法上の規定を判断する方法で拡大してきた。現在は、連邦最高裁が連邦憲法適合性の点から婚姻に関する州法上の規定をどのように判断するかが注目されている。このように婚姻平等は、最初の種は州憲法であったが、いまやアメリカ全土にとどまらず、世界的潮流になりつつある。日本でも婚姻平等(同性婚)に対する賛否両論の声がある。日本は果たしてどのような道を選択するのであろうか。

English Abstract: The history of marriage equality cases through to the 2015 Supreme Court decision in Obergefell v. Hodges is relatively well-known to US-based scholars, but less so in many locations abroad. This article presents that history not only for its own value, but as a window into understanding distinct aspects of the U.S. system of federalism. The paper first introduces the history of Hawai'i's constitutions, from the Kingdom of Hawai'i's several promulgations, through that of the Republic of Hawai'i, and then into statehood and the present day. Next, the article presents the jurisprudential balance between U.S. federal and state constitutions to explain how the Supreme Court of Hawai'i launched a revolution in marriage equality with the 1993 Baehr v. Lewin decision in an application of the Independent and Adequate State Grounds doctrine of federal court jurisdiction. Though Baehr was overridden by a state constitutional amendment in 1998 and vacated in 1999, the decision rapidly spawned multiple venues of legal action both supporting and opposing marriage equality rights until recognition of marriage equality as a U.S. federal constitutional right was finalized by the U.S. Supreme Court in June 2015.

This article, designed for a Japanese legal audience, aims to explain the history of Obergefell while also using the case example as a means of explaining the often-overlooked but vital role of state constitutional law in shaping the U.S. legal order. It concludes with a call for further attention to state constitutional law as well as for a careful reconsideration of marriage equality rights law in Japan.

Note: Downloadable document is in Japanese.

Keywords: Obergefell v. Hodges, Baehr v. Lewin, Baehr v. Miike, same-sex marriage, marriage equality, federalism, equal protection, fundamental rights, state constitutional law, Hawaii, Independent and Adequate State Grounds doctrine, federal court jurisdiction, ハワイ州憲法、「相当かつ独立の州法上の根拠」法理、婚姻平等

Suggested Citation

Levin, Mark A. and Enoki, Toru, アメリカ合衆国における連邦憲法と州憲法の関係のダイナミクス - 婚姻平等(同性婚)を例として (Relational Dynamics between the U.S. Federal and State Constitutions: The Trajectory of Marriage Equality Cases from Baehr to Obergefell) (May 1, 2015). Hōritsu Jihō, (法律時報), Vol. 87, No.5, 91-97, May 2015 , Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1864831

Mark A. Levin (Contact Author)

University of Hawaii at Manoa - William S. Richardson School of Law ( email )

2515 Dole Street
Honolulu, HI 96822-2350
United States

HOME PAGE: http://www.law.hawaii.edu/levin

Toru Enoki

Independent

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