Safe Conduct and Safe Passage

Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2009

6 Pages Posted: 5 Jul 2011

See all articles by James Kraska

James Kraska

Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College; Harvard University - Harvard Law School; University of California Berkeley School of Law; Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)

Date Written: July 1, 2009

Abstract

The notion ‘safe conduct’ describes a written permission and protection given by a belligerent in an international armed conflict for a person to travel unhindered by the local population or local authorities to a given place for a certain purpose. Safe passage is a grant of protection against harm or the use of force by the forces of a belligerent and given to persons or property of another belligerent to ensure unmolested travel through a military zone or occupied area. Safe passage is granted through delivery of a special passport issued by an authority on behalf of a belligerent. The term ‘safeguard’ is a grant of protection against the use of force by a belligerent in favour of the people or property of another belligerent party to a conflict. The terms ‘safe conduct’, ‘safe passage’ and ‘safeguard’, often are used interchangeably.

Suggested Citation

Kraska, James, Safe Conduct and Safe Passage (July 1, 2009). Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2009, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1876713

James Kraska (Contact Author)

Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College ( email )

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