The Long-Term Direct and External Effects of Jewish Expulsions in Nazi Germany

45 Pages Posted: 24 Jul 2011

See all articles by Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel

Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Mutlu Yuksel

Dalhousie University; IZA


This paper provides causal evidence on long-term consequences of Jewish expulsions in Nazi Germany on the educational attainment and political outcomes of German children. We combine a unique city-level dataset on the fraction of Jewish population residing in Germany before the Nazi Regime with individual survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). Our identification strategy exploits the plausibly exogenous city-by-cohort variation in the Jewish population in Germany as a unique quasi-experiment. We find that the persecution of Jewish professionals had significant, long-lasting detrimental effects on the human capital and political development of Germans who were at school-age during the Nazi Regime. First, these children have 0.4 fewer years of schooling on average in adulthood. Second, these children are less likely to go to college or have a graduate degree. Third, they are less likely to have interest in politics as adults. These results survive using alternative samples and specifications, including controlling for Second World War, Nazi and Communist Party support and unemployment effects.

Keywords: human capital formation, dismissal, Jewish professionals, political development

JEL Classification: I21, I12, J24, N34

Suggested Citation

Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude and Yuksel, Mutlu, The Long-Term Direct and External Effects of Jewish Expulsions in Nazi Germany. IZA Discussion Paper No. 5850, Available at SSRN:

Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel (Contact Author)

IZA Institute of Labor Economics ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072

Mutlu Yuksel

Dalhousie University ( email )

Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5


IZA ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072

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