Explicit and Implicit Racial Attitudes: A Test of their Convergent and Predictive Validity
41 Pages Posted: 1 Aug 2011 Last revised: 19 Aug 2011
Date Written: 2011
Using data from national samples, we examine the convergent and predictive validity of explicit and implicit measures of racial prejudice. First, we show that explicit measures diverge from a measure of implicit racial bias. The number of respondents classified as prejudiced on the implicit measure substantially exceeds the corresponding number based on explicit indicators, suggesting that survey respondents may be masking their racial attitudes. Second, in three different experimental contexts, we demonstrate that implicit racial bias predicts a preference for individuals with lighter complexions. People classified as prejudiced on the basis of explicit measures, however, do not discriminate on the basis of complexion. Our findings suggest that future efforts to assess prejudice should incorporate both implicit and explicit racial attitudes.
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