Sanctions, Transnational Organized Crime
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TRANSNATIONAL CRIME AND JUSTICE, Spring 2012
3 Pages Posted: 29 Sep 2011
Date Written: August 15, 2011
This article, which will appear in the Encyclopedia of Transnational Crime and Justice when it is published in the spring of 2012, discusses Executive Order 13581, which blocks property of certain "significant transnational criminal organizations" (TCOs), determined by the Secretary of the Treasury under powers the International Economic Emergency Powers Act (IEEPA). The article reviews the origins and uses of IEEPA, and notes the parallels between the designation processes for TCOs, and the Secretary of State's powers to designate Foreign Terrorist Organizations under the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Dealth Penalty Act (AEDPA).
The Obama Administration also released the Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime simultaneously with the Executive Order. The Strategy further describes the growing national security threats posed by TCOs, and how the U.S. Government plans to disrupt the threats posed by and dismantle those groups, using all elements of national power. The article will appear in the Encyclopedia as "Sanctions, Transnational Organized Crime."
Keywords: Terrorism, counterterrorism, terrorist financing, transnational criminal organizations, transnational organized crime, intelligence, law enformcement, IEEPA, International Economic Emergency Powers Act, AEDPA, Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, kingpin, drug trafficking, Los Zetas
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