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What are Ownership Advantages?

The Multinational Business Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 51-69, 2010

19 Pages Posted: 16 Sep 2011  

Sarianna M. Lundan

University of Bremen

Date Written: September 16, 2009


In this paper we examine three distinct types of ownership advantages, and argue that these are associated with three different kinds of limits to the growth of the firm. For some firms, the inability to regenerate its asset-based advantages is critical, while for others, the inability to effectively coordinate its assets (inside or outside the firm), or the inability to negotiate the nonmarket environment are more salient. We think that the identification of different analytical categories of ownership advantages enables the construction of better proxies in empirical research, and helps to explain the limited geographical reach of MNEs observed in the literature.

Keywords: MNE theory, OLI paradigm, firm growth

JEL Classification: F23, D23, D83

Suggested Citation

Lundan, Sarianna M., What are Ownership Advantages? (September 16, 2009). The Multinational Business Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 51-69, 2010. Available at SSRN:

Sarianna M. Lundan (Contact Author)

University of Bremen ( email )

FB 7
Hochschulring 4
Bremen, D-28359


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