Footnotes (166)



The Constitutional Jurisprudence of Justice Kennedy on Speech

R. Randall Kelso

South Texas College of Law

Charles D. Kelso

University of the Pacific - McGeorge School of Law

September 20, 2011

Justice Kennedy’s basic principles in free speech cases are supporting political freedom, supporting individual autonomy, and protecting freedom to teach, learn and innovate. Given these principles, his opinions in free speech cases protect free speech from government regulation unless the government can provide strong reasons for any restrictive action and show that the means it has chosen to carry out its purposes are closely tailored to its goals. At a minimum, judicial review is by strict scrutiny for content-based regulations, and intermediate review for content neutral time, place, and manner regulations. In some cases, Justice Kennedy has indicated a preference for a stronger, absolute rule of unconstitutionality for content-based regulations which do not fall into one of the traditional exceptions of free speech doctrine, such as obscenity, defamation, words tantamount to an act otherwise criminal, impairing some other constitutional right, an incitement to lawless action, or speech calculated to bring about imminent harm that the state has substantive power to regulate. Given his entire body of decisions regarding the freedom of speech over his quarter century on the Court, no Justice on the modern Court has been more consistently protective of the First Amendment freedom of speech than Justice Kennedy.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 40

Open PDF in Browser Download This Paper

Date posted: September 20, 2011  

Suggested Citation

Kelso, R. Randall and Kelso, Charles D., The Constitutional Jurisprudence of Justice Kennedy on Speech (September 20, 2011). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1930998 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1930998

Contact Information

R. Randall Kelso (Contact Author)
South Texas College of Law ( email )
1303 San Jacinto Street
Houston, TX 77002
United States
713-646-1837 (Phone)
Charles D. Kelso
University of the Pacific - McGeorge School of Law ( email )
3200 Fifth Avenue
Sacramento, CA 95817
United States
916-739-7001 (Phone)
916-739-7111 (Fax)
Feedback to SSRN

Paper statistics
Abstract Views: 471
Downloads: 59
Download Rank: 285,594
Footnotes:  166