Looking East, Looking West: Penang as a Knowledge Hub

17 Pages Posted: 10 Oct 2011

See all articles by Solvay Gerke

Solvay Gerke

Center for Development research (ZEF)

Hans-Dieter Evers

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Date Written: September 18, 2011


Penang has always been a focal point, absorbing knowledge (and popular culture) from civilizations to the East and West. In modern Penang the pattern of cultural contacts has changed over time. Research institutes and universities in Penang cooperate with foreign partners to produce research papers and reports. Based on an analysis of joint research output, the changing international position of Penang as an emerging research hub will be analyzed. The paper will show that international cooperation has increased considerably between 1970 and 2010, but that there has also been a remarkable shift from European, Australian and American partners to East Asian and to South Asian partners. The latter will be analyzed in greater detail to show the development of Penang as an increasingly important Asian knowledge hub. One of the highlighted results of our paper will be the increasing importance of research ties across the Indian Ocean.

Keywords: knowledge governance, research output, Malaysia, India, China, European Union

JEL Classification: H40

Suggested Citation

Gerke, Solvay and Evers, Hans-Dieter, Looking East, Looking West: Penang as a Knowledge Hub (September 18, 2011). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1941148 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1941148

Solvay Gerke

Center for Development research (ZEF) ( email )

Walter-Flex-Str. 3
Bonn, NRW 53113

HOME PAGE: http://www.zef.de

Hans-Dieter Evers (Contact Author)

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia ( email )

Institute of Malaysian and International Studies (
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Bangi, Selangor D.E. 43600
+60-149456927 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.ukm.my/ikmas/

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