The Long-Run Effects of the Scramble for Africa

178 Pages Posted: 24 Nov 2011 Last revised: 23 Feb 2023

See all articles by Stelios Michalopoulos

Stelios Michalopoulos

Brown University - Department of Economics; Brown University

Elias Papaioannou

London Business School; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: November 2011

Abstract

We examine the long-run consequences of ethnic partitioning, a neglected aspect of the Scramble for Africa, and uncover the following regularities. First, apart from the land mass and presence of water bodies, historical homelands of split and non-split groups are similar across many observable characteristics. Second, using georeferenced data on political violence, that include both state-driven conflict and violence against civilians, we find that the incidence, severity and duration of violence are higher in the historical homelands of partitioned groups. Third, we shed some light on the mechanisms showing that military interventions from neighboring countries are much more likely in the homelands of split groups. Fourth, our exploration of the status of ethnic groups in the political arena reveals that partitioned ethnicities are systematically discriminated from the national government and are more likely to participate in ethnic civil wars. Fifth, using individual-level data we document that respondents identifying with split groups have lower access to public goods and worse educational outcomes. The uncovered evidence brings in the foreground the detrimental repercussions of ethnic partitioning.

Suggested Citation

Michalopoulos, Stelios and Papaioannou, Elias, The Long-Run Effects of the Scramble for Africa (November 2011). NBER Working Paper No. w17620, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1964165

Stelios Michalopoulos (Contact Author)

Brown University - Department of Economics ( email )

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Brown University ( email )

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Elias Papaioannou

London Business School ( email )

Sussex Place
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London, London NW1 4SA
United Kingdom

Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) ( email )

London
United Kingdom

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