Soft Shareholder Activism
University of Pennsylvania - Finance Department
October 17, 2014
This paper studies informal communications and exit as alternative ways through which investors can influence managers when obtaining control is not feasible or too costly. The first result shows that exit relaxes the tension between investors and managers, and thereby enhances the effectiveness of communications as a form of shareholder activism. The second result shows that public communications are more effective than private communications if and only if managers are concerned about the stock price and their decisions are observed by the market. Overall, the analysis relates the effectiveness of communications to market liquidity; entrenchment and compensation structure of managers; and investors' expertise, investment horizon and ownership size.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 45
Keywords: Shareholder Activism, Voice, Exit, Corporate Governance, Communication, Cheap-Talk
JEL Classification: D74, D82, D83, G34
Date posted: December 8, 2011 ; Last revised: October 18, 2014