Faith or Doctrine? Islam and Support for Political Violence in Pakistan

37 Pages Posted: 12 Dec 2011 Last revised: 26 Jan 2012

C. Christine Fair

Georgetown University

Neil A. Malhotra

Stanford Graduate School of Business

Jacob N. Shapiro

Princeton University - Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs; Princeton University - Department of Political Science

Date Written: December 11, 2011

Abstract

Discussions of how to deal with terrorism around the world have repeatedly touched on whether Islam contributes to a uniquely virulent strain of non-state violence targeted at civilians. These popular debates almost always conceive of “Islam” in general terms, not clearly defining what is meant by Islamic religious faith. We address this debate by designing and conducting a large-scale public opinion survey in Pakistan. We measure multiple elements of religiosity, allowing us to separately consider the relationship between militancy support and (1) personal piety, (2) support for political Islam, and (3) jihadism, which we define as a particular textual interpretation common to Islamist groups espousing violent political action. Further, we measure support for specific militant organizations using a novel form of an “endorsement experiment” to address the challenges of asking about these sensitive issues in a violent context. We find that neither personal religious piety nor support for political Islam is correlated with support for militant organizations. However, Pakistanis who believe jihad is both an external militarized struggle and that it can be waged by individuals are more supportive of militant groups than those who believe it is an internal struggle for righteousness.

Suggested Citation

Fair, C. Christine and Malhotra, Neil A. and Shapiro, Jacob N., Faith or Doctrine? Islam and Support for Political Violence in Pakistan (December 11, 2011). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1971037 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1971037

C. Christine Fair (Contact Author)

Georgetown University ( email )

Washington, DC 20057
United States

Neil A. Malhotra

Stanford Graduate School of Business ( email )

655 Knight Way
Stanford, CA 94305-5015
United States

Jacob N. Shapiro

Princeton University - Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs ( email )

Princeton University
Princeton, NJ 08544-1021
United States

Princeton University - Department of Political Science ( email )

Corwin Hall
Princeton, NJ 08544-1013
United States

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