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Is There a Gender Bias in Crime Against Firms for Developing Economies?

41 Pages Posted: 18 Dec 2011 Last revised: 17 Sep 2012

Asif Islam

The World Bank

Date Written: September 17, 2012


This study explores the relationship between firms with a presence of female ownership and losses due to crime experienced by firms using data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries. The results suggest that there may be a positive association between the losses experienced by firms due to crime and the presence of female ownership, a result consistent with findings in the literature of crimes and female headed households. The results are retained for firms with a female owner and a top female manager. These results provide some support for gender based policies given the potential inefficiencies if crime targeting female owned and managed firms discouraged female labor participation. Several macro-economic factors weaken or strengthen this relationship, implying that gender based policies in tandem with certain macro factors may be more effective.

Keywords: crime, firms, gender, development

JEL Classification: K42, O10, O50, J16

Suggested Citation

Islam, Asif, Is There a Gender Bias in Crime Against Firms for Developing Economies? (September 17, 2012). Available at SSRN: or

Asif M. Islam (Contact Author)

The World Bank ( email )

2121 Pennsylvania Ave NW
2121 Pennsylvania Ave NW
Washington, DC 20037
United States

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