Is There a Gender Bias in Crime Against Firms for Developing Economies?
The World Bank
September 17, 2012
This study explores the relationship between firms with a presence of female ownership and losses due to crime experienced by firms using data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries. The results suggest that there may be a positive association between the losses experienced by firms due to crime and the presence of female ownership, a result consistent with findings in the literature of crimes and female headed households. The results are retained for firms with a female owner and a top female manager. These results provide some support for gender based policies given the potential inefficiencies if crime targeting female owned and managed firms discouraged female labor participation. Several macro-economic factors weaken or strengthen this relationship, implying that gender based policies in tandem with certain macro factors may be more effective.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 41
Keywords: crime, firms, gender, development
JEL Classification: K42, O10, O50, J16
Date posted: December 18, 2011 ; Last revised: September 17, 2012