Personality Dimensions in Psychopathy: Potential Explanatory Models for Primary and Secondary Traits
Brett A. Murphy
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Department of Psychology
affiliation not provided to SSRN
January 1, 2012
“Psychopathy” is a psychopathological construct involving a diverse set of affective deficits and behavioral disinhibitions that result in substantial antisocial behavior, and includes traits such as extreme egocentricity, profound lack of empathy, and limited ability to experience guilt and remorse. The costs that “psychopaths” impose on society are enormous. Researchers have estimated that they comprise more than 15 percent of the adult prison population and are even more highly represented among repeat violent offenders. Although psychopaths are not necessarily violent, when they do commit violent offenses, their violence is very often coldblooded, predatorial, and instrumentally employed in the pursuit of another goal, such as money, sex, or power.
This unpublished manuscript extensively reviews and summarizes much of the psychological and neurobiological literature related to "psychopathy." In addition to reviewing the existing findings regarding psychopathy and the prominent hypotheses regarding its etiology and unifying characteristics, this manuscript also offers a novel theory of the primary form of psychopathy, the "power assessment" hypothesis. This "power assessment" hypothesis argues: (1) that much of human behavior and cognition is causally influenced by bioregulatory mechanisms related to internal, subconscious assessments of power; and (2) that abnormalities in these mechanisms, when present starting early in childhood, may generate the cognitive, attentional, and behavorial characteristics of primary psychopathy.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 167
Keywords: psychopathy, sociopathy, antisocial personality, oxytocin, dopamine, power assessment
Date posted: January 2, 2012 ; Last revised: January 3, 2012