RLUIPA and Exclusionary Zoning: Government Defendants Should Have the Burden of Persuasion in Equal Terms Cases

36 Pages Posted: 23 Jan 2012 Last revised: 5 Apr 2012

Date Written: March 1, 2012

Abstract

Zoning and other land use regulations are often used to hinder the operation of religious institutions or the construction of their facilities. In 2000, Congress passed the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act (RLUIPA), in part to combat such exclusionary land use practices. RLUIPA’s Equal Terms Provision forbids governments from imposing land use regulations that treat religious institutions on less than equal terms with secular institutions. Despite the apparent clarity of the statutory language, federal circuit courts have disagreed over the allocation of burdens of proof in Equal Terms cases. Some circuits have held that religious plaintiffs have the burden of persuasion, while others have held that the burden of persuasion falls on government defendants. The allocation of burdens is important because it is generally more difficult for the party charged with the burden of persuasion to succeed at trial. This Note approaches the circuit split by examining RLUIPA’s legislative history and public policy goals, as well as comparing Equal Terms cases with federal exclusionary zoning cases, and with Free Exercise Clause jurisprudence. Ultimately, this Note argues that in light of the above comparisons, as well as RLUIPA’s clear statutory text, the government, not the religious plaintiff, should have the burden of persuasion in Equal Terms cases.

Keywords: RLUIPA, burden of proof, exclusionary zoning, free exercise, fair housing act

Suggested Citation

Raccuia, Thomas, RLUIPA and Exclusionary Zoning: Government Defendants Should Have the Burden of Persuasion in Equal Terms Cases (March 1, 2012). Fordham Law Review, Vol. 80, No. 4, 2012, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1989958

Thomas Raccuia (Contact Author)

Fordham Law Review ( email )

140 West 62nd Street
New York, NY 10023
United States

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