Where is the Opportunity Without the Customer? An Integration of Marketing Activities, the Entrepreneurship Process, and Institutional Theory
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 39, p. 537, 2011
19 Pages Posted: 31 Jan 2012
Date Written: November 10, 2010
Marketing and entrepreneurship have long been recognized as two key responsibilities of the firm. Despite their tight integration in practice, marketing and entrepreneur- ship as domains of scholarly inquiry have largely progressed within their respective disciplinary boundaries with minimal cross-disciplinary fertilization. Furthermore, although firms increasingly undertake their marketing and entrepreneurial activities across diverse settings, academe has provided little insight into how changes in the institutional environment may substantially alter the processes and outcomes of these undertakings. Herein, we integrate research on marketing activities, the entrepreneurship process, and institutional theory in an effort to address this gap. We first discuss market orientation as enhancing a firm’s opportunity recognition and innovation, whereas marketing mix decisions enhance opportunity exploitation. We then examine how entrepreneurship leads to innovation directed toward market orientation and marketing mix activities. Based on this foundation, we examine differences in marketing and entrepreneurship activities across institutional contexts.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship process, Market orientation, Marketing mix, Institutional theory, Customer needs, Opportunity
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