The Uneasy Case for Lower Parking Standards

FEUNL Working Paper Series No. 564

35 Pages Posted: 14 Feb 2012  

W. Bowman Cutter

Pomona College - Department of Economics

Sofia F. Franco

Technical University of Lisbon (UTL) - Research Unit on Complexity and Economics (UECE); Nova School of Business and Economics

Date Written: January 13, 2012

Abstract

Minimum parking requirements are the norm for urban and suburban development in the United States (Davidson and Dolnick (2002)). The justification for parking space requirements is that overflow parking will occupy nearby street or off-street parking. Shoup (1999) and Willson (1995) provides cases where there is reason to believe that parking space requirements have forced parcel developers to place more parking than they would in the absence of parking requirements. If the effect of parking minimums is to significantly increase the land area devoted to parking, then the increase in impervious surfaces would likely cause water quality degradation, increased flooding, and decreased groundwater recharge. However, to our knowledge the existing literature does not test the effect of parking minimums on the amount of lot space devoted to parking beyond a few case studies. This paper tests the hypothesis that parking space requirements cause an oversupply of parking by examining the implicit marginal value of land allocated to parking spaces. This is an indirect test of the effects of parking requirements that is similar to Glaeser and Gyourko (2003). A simple theoretical model shows that the marginal value of additional parking to the sale price should be equal to the cost of land plus the cost of parking construction. We estimate the marginal values of parking and lot area with spatial methods using a large data set from the Los Angeles area non-residential property sales and find that for most of the property types the marginal value of parking is significantly below that of the parcel area. This evidence supports the contention that minimum parking requirements significantly increase the amount of parcel area devoted to parking.

Keywords: parking, land use, sprawl

JEL Classification: R52, H23

Suggested Citation

Cutter, W. Bowman and Franco, Sofia F., The Uneasy Case for Lower Parking Standards (January 13, 2012). FEUNL Working Paper Series No. 564. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2004293 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2004293

W. Bowman Cutter

Pomona College - Department of Economics ( email )

Claremont, CA 91711
United States

Sofia F. Franco (Contact Author)

Technical University of Lisbon (UTL) - Research Unit on Complexity and Economics (UECE) ( email )

Rua Miguel Lupi, 20
Lisbon, 1200-781
Portugal
+351-213 925 912 (Phone)
+351-213 971 196 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.iseg.utl.pt/~uece/

Nova School of Business and Economics ( email )

Campus de Campolide
Lisbon, 1099-032
Portugal

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