Managing Distributed Innovation: Strategic Utilization of Open and User Innovation

15 Pages Posted: 23 Feb 2012

See all articles by Marcel Bogers

Marcel Bogers

Eindhoven University of Technology; University of Copenhagen; University of California, Berkeley

Joel West

KGI - Keck Graduate Institute

Date Written: March 2012


Research from a variety of perspectives has argued that innovation no longer takes place within a single organization, but rather is distributed across multiple stakeholders in a value network. Here we contrast the vertically integrated innovation model to open innovation, user innovation, as well as other distributed processes (cumulative innovation, communities or social production, and co‐creation), while we also discuss open source software and crowdsourcing as applications of the perspectives. We consider differences in the nature of distributed innovation, as well as its origins and its effects. From this, we contrast the predictions of the perspectives on the sources, motivation and value appropriation of external innovation, and thereby provide a framework for the strategic management of distributed innovation.

Suggested Citation

Bogers, Marcel and West, Joel, Managing Distributed Innovation: Strategic Utilization of Open and User Innovation (March 2012). Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 61-75, 2012, Available at SSRN: or

Marcel Bogers (Contact Author)

Eindhoven University of Technology

Den Dolech 2
Eindhoven, North Brabant 5612 AZ


University of Copenhagen ( email )

Department of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO)
Rolighedsvej 23
Copenhagen, 1958

University of California, Berkeley

Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation
F402 Hass School of Business, #1930
Berkeley, CA 94720
United States

Joel West

KGI - Keck Graduate Institute ( email )

535 Watson Drive
Claremont, CA 91711
United States
909-293-8550 (Phone)


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