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Negligence’s X Factor

Cardozo Law Review de Novo, Forthcoming

3 Pages Posted: 11 Mar 2012  

Eric E. Johnson

University of North Dakota School of Law

Date Written: September 1, 2009


This brief paper argues that it is helpful to reconceptualize the famous “Hand Formula” as an equation. To translate the inequality relation of the Hand Formula into an equation, one only needs to add a variable, x. Doing so is illuminating in many ways, as it allows us to quantify exactly how negligent a party is. Consideration of the x factor allows the Hand Formula to be a better teaching and research vehicle.

Keywords: economics, hand, algebra, negligence, variable

JEL Classification: C20, C90, D61, D63, K13, K41

Suggested Citation

Johnson, Eric E., Negligence’s X Factor (September 1, 2009). Cardozo Law Review de Novo, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN:

Eric E. Johnson (Contact Author)

University of North Dakota School of Law ( email )

P.O. Box 9003
Grand Forks, ND 58202-9003
United States


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