Low-Profit Limited Liability Companies (L3Cs)

17 Pages Posted: 14 Mar 2012

See all articles by Nancy Artz

Nancy Artz

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Jeffrey Gramlich

Carson College of Business

Terry Porter

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Date Written: March 14, 2012


This paper introduces the L3C form to the public affairs literature. The Low-Profit Limited Liability Company (L3C) is a new legal form of business entity emerging in the U.S. As a form of social enterprise, L3C firms use a marketplace approach to solve social problems. The L3C form represents a radical transformation of capitalist enterprise, in that a social mission trumps profit generation. The emergence of the social enterprise movement has the potential to shift stakeholder expectations about appropriate levels of corporate social responsibility. If changes in tax policy occur, private foundations could become a major source of start-up capital for L3Cs. The result would be social enterprise claiming a larger share of commercial marketplaces. This paper explores L3C opportunities and risks from a managerial perspective, with particular focus on the public affairs implications of the L3C form.

Keywords: L3C, social enterprise, corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainable business

Suggested Citation

Artz, Nancy and Gramlich, Jeffrey and Porter, Terry, Low-Profit Limited Liability Companies (L3Cs) (March 14, 2012). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2022342 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2022342

Nancy Artz

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

Jeffrey Gramlich

Carson College of Business ( email )

Wilson Rd.
College of Business
Pullman, WA 99164
United States

HOME PAGE: http://https://business.wsu.edu/research-faculty/institutes/hoops-institute/

Terry Porter (Contact Author)

affiliation not provided to SSRN

No Address Available

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