Immigration: The European Experience

50 Pages Posted: 16 Mar 2012

See all articles by Christian Dustmann

Christian Dustmann

University College London; Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS); Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

Tommaso Frattini

University of Milan - Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano (LdA); University of Milan - Department of Economics, Business and Statistics

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Date Written: December 2011


This paper first presents a brief historical overview of immigration in Europe. We then provide (and distinguishing between EU and non-EU immigrants) a comprehensive analysis of the skill structures of immigrants and their labor market integration in the different European countries, their position in the wage distribution, and the situation of their children, and discuss the disadvantage of immigrants and their children relative to natives. We show that immigrants – in particular those from non-EU countries – are severely disadvantaged in most countries, even if we compare them to natives with the same measurable skills. We conclude with a discussion of the role of regulations and institutions as one possible mechanism for these findings, and suggest directions for future research.

Keywords: Immigration, Europe, Integration, Institutions

JEL Classification: J15, J61, J62

Suggested Citation

Dustmann, Christian and Frattini, Tommaso, Immigration: The European Experience (December 2011). Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano Development Studies Working Paper No. 326, Available at SSRN: or

Christian Dustmann

University College London ( email )

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Tommaso Frattini (Contact Author)

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University of Milan - Department of Economics, Business and Statistics ( email )

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