Image and Misreporting

31 Pages Posted: 31 Mar 2012

See all articles by Mara Ewers

Mara Ewers

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Florian Zimmermann

University of Bonn


In this paper we ask if reports of private information about skills, abilities or achievements are affected by image concerns. We develop a simple model that illustrates how image utility can lead to misreporting of private information in contexts where truthful reports maximize monetary outcomes. In addition, we test the model's predictions in a controlled lab experiment. In the experiment, all subjects go through a series of quiz questions and subsequently report a performance measure. We vary if reports are made to an audience or not and find evidence for image effects. In the audience treatment, stated reports are significantly higher than in the private treatment. This suggests that overconfident appearance might be a consequence of social approval seeking. We also find that men state higher self-assessments than women. This gender difference seems to be driven by men responding more strongly to the presence of an audience.

Keywords: image concerns, self-assessment, overconfidence, experiment

JEL Classification: C91, D03, D82

Suggested Citation

Ewers, Mara and Zimmermann, Florian, Image and Misreporting. IZA Discussion Paper No. 6425. Available at SSRN:

Mara Ewers (Contact Author)

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Florian Zimmermann

University of Bonn ( email )

Regina-Pacis-Weg 3
Postfach 2220
Bonn, D-53012

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