The 'Three Systems'

Posted: 31 Mar 2012 Last revised: 27 Jun 2017

Date Written: May 15, 2009


Nature and markets are replete with examples of three systems. However, little has been written about these recurring cases of three systems. This is a compilation of various examples of such systems and how human psychology relates to three systems better than other systems. Leonhard Euler discussed the three body problem in 1760. Is it just a coincidence or are three systems related to a key mathematical proportion?

Keywords: Three Systems, Geometry, Sierpinski, Geology, Social Expression, Time Triads

JEL Classification: C00

Suggested Citation

Pal, Mukul, The 'Three Systems' (May 15, 2009). Available at SSRN: or

Mukul Pal (Contact Author)

AlphaBlock ( email )

Toronto, Ontario M8Z 2H6


Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics