The Micrographs of Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Pandanus Species
8 Pages Posted: 30 Apr 2012
Date Written: April 29, 2012
In this paper, the micrographs of calcium oxalate crystal (CaC2O4.H2O), extracted from natural samples, specifically from the Pandanus genus (family: Pandanaceae), are presented. The crystal holds a significant attribute for guiding plant taxonomists and archaeologists in the investigation of sustainable plant species. From the literature, this stable mineral exists in higher plant species and commonly consists of five basic morphological types; (1) needle-shaped raphides, (2) rectangular or pencil-shaped styolids, (3) mace-head-shaped aggregates called druses, (4) block-shaped aggregates called crystal sand, and (5) variously shaped prisms. Its size and appearance can differ within and between the plant families. Advanced resolution analyses of calcium oxalate raphides were published using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy. Through SEM, another four general characteristics of raphides (Types I–IV) could be distinguished. In one of our phytochemical investigations of Pandanus species, we would like to examine whether this plant genus could produce the same form of crystal in the same tissue. Therefore, the crystals are extracted based on methodologies, adapted from Crowther, A. (2009a, 2009b). Both leaves and roots organs were firstly macerated in 70% ethanol. Then, the ethanolic suspensions were agitated and the aliquots were transferred to the microscope slides and allowed to air dry. The slides were examined by using Leica Microsystems Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM), followed by SEM. In our findings, the samples from P. amaryfollius, P. conoideus, P. leram and P. pygmaeus contain needle-shaped raphides, as reported for P. dubius. This screening could support the crystals’ distinctiveness are probably under the plant genetic control.
Keywords: calcium, crystals, oxalate, Pandanus, sustainable
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation