Optimizing the Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Method by Decreasing Turbidity with NaCl

Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 2(2) pp. 87-94, 2012

12 Pages Posted: 30 Apr 2012

See all articles by Brittney Dawney

Brittney Dawney

Queen's University

Joshua M. Pearce

Michigan Technological University; Aalto University

Date Written: April 30, 2012

Abstract

Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has proven to be effective at reducing diarrheal incidence in epidemiological intervention studies. However, the SODIS method is limited to waters of low turbidity (<30 NTU). This study investigates the use of common table salt (NaCl) to reduce the turbidity of water containing suspended colloidal clay particles for use in the SODIS method. Three representative clays found in tropical soils (kaolinite, illite and bentonite) were tested at three levels of turbidity (50, 100 and 200 NTU) for their flocculating behavior with multiple NaCl concentrations to find the optimum. Supernatants were tested for sodium concentration for comparison against health and taste thresholds. Results show that unlike kaolinite and illite, pure bentonite solutions were shown to be very responsive to NaCl and produced supernatants with as low as 4 NTU (98% particle removal efficiency). This study has shown that NaCl, in combination with high-activity clay particles in solution, may effectively reduce turbidity to levels suitable for SODIS treatment, thereby expanding the number of people who can utilize the technology effectively.

Keywords: drinking water, flocculation, sanitation, SODIS, sodium, turbidity, appropriate technology, sustainable development

JEL Classification: O13

Suggested Citation

Dawney, Brittney and Pearce, Joshua M., Optimizing the Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Method by Decreasing Turbidity with NaCl (April 30, 2012). Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 2(2) pp. 87-94, 2012. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2048486

Brittney Dawney

Queen's University ( email )

Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6
Canada

HOME PAGE: http://www.appropedia.org/QAS

Joshua M. Pearce (Contact Author)

Michigan Technological University ( email )

Houghton, MI 49931
United States

HOME PAGE: http://www.mse.mtu.edu/~pearce/Index.html

Aalto University ( email )

P.O. Box 21210
Helsinki, 00101
Finland

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