The Transformation of Triad ‘Dark Societies’ in Hong Kong: The Impact of Law Enforcement, Socio-Economic and Political Change
Broadhurst, R.G. and K.W. Lee, 2009, ‘The Transformation of Triad ‘Dark’ Societies in Hong Kong: The Impact of Law Enforcement, and Socio-Economic and Political Change’, Security Challenges, Vol. 5 , pp 1-38
38 Pages Posted: 8 Jun 2012
Date Written: Summer 2009
Late colonial and post-colonial attempts to suppress triad societies have occurred in the context of modernization and associated socio-economic and political change in Hong Kong. Anti-corruption efforts, improved enforcement, a focus on illicit entrepreneurs and tainted wealth have contributed to a decrease in public tolerance of triads and greater confidence in police. The scale, form, visibility and activities of triad societies have also changed with recent declines in triad-related lethal violence and membership activity. Following market reforms, rapid economic development in the People’s Republic of China, notably in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone offered attractive illicit opportunities that encouraged triad-related commercial vice enterprises away from Hong Kong.
Keywords: triad society, organized crime, gang violence, Chinese secret societies, Hong Kong China, Organized and Serious Crimes Ordinance
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