Gender in Transition: The Case of North Korea

33 Pages Posted: 11 Jun 2012

See all articles by Marcus Noland

Marcus Noland

Peterson Institute for International Economics; East-West Center

Stephan M. Haggard

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IRPS)

Date Written: June 11, 2012

Abstract

This paper uses a survey of 300 North Korean refugees to examine the experience of women in North Korea's fitful economic transition. Like other socialist states, North Korea has maintained a de jure commitment to women's rights. However, we find that women have been disproportionately shed from state-affiliated employment and thrust into a market environment characterized by weak institutions and corruption. As a result, the state and its affiliated institutions are increasingly populated by males, and the market, particularly in its retail aspects, is dominated by women. Among the most recent cohort of refugees to leave North Korea, more than one-third of male respondents indicate that criminality and corruption is the best way to make money, and 95 percent of female traders report paying bribes to avoid the penal system. In short, the increasingly male-dominated state preys on the increasingly female-dominated market. These results paint a picture of a vulnerable group that has been disadvantaged in North Korea's transition. Energies are directed toward survival, mass civil disobedience is reactive, and as a group, this population appears to lack the tools or social capital to act collectively to improve their status.

Keywords: gender, transition, refugees, North Korea

JEL Classification: P2, J16, F22

Suggested Citation

Noland, Marcus and Haggard, Stephan M., Gender in Transition: The Case of North Korea (June 11, 2012). Peterson Institute for International Economics Working Paper No. 12-11, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2082234 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2082234

Marcus Noland (Contact Author)

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Stephan M. Haggard

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