The Labor/Land Ratio and India's Caste System
47 Pages Posted: 16 Jun 2012
This paper proposes that India's caste system and involuntary labor were joint responses by a nonworking landowning class to a low labor/land ratio in which the rules of the caste system supported the institution of involuntary labor. The hypothesis is tested in two ways: longitudinally, with data from ancient religious texts, and cross-sectionally, with twentieth-century statistics on regional population/land ratios linked to anthropological measures of caste-system rigidity. Both the longitudinal and cross-sectional evidence suggest that the labor/land ratio affected the caste system's development, persistence, and rigidity over time and across regions of India.
Keywords: labor-to-land ratio, population, involuntary labor, immobility, value of life, marginal product of labor, market wage
JEL Classification: J47, J1, J30, N3, Z13
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