The Mechanics of Virtue: Lessons on Public Participation from Implementing the Water Framework Directive in the Netherlands
Environmental Policy and Governance, Volume 22, Issue 3, pages 177–188
17 Pages Posted: 19 Jun 2012 Last revised: 25 Apr 2013
Date Written: April 10, 2012
Public participation is often presented as a virtue (a normative good), but the strategy comes with its own mechanical flaws. Policy debates and the literature have for a long time been dominated by this idea of public participation as a virtue, but recently the literature has become more critical, addressing the instrumental and substantive aspects of public participation. This article engages with and adds to the literature by presenting the use of public participation in implementing the European Water Framework Directive in the Netherlands. The study traces and discusses a number of mechanistic issues related to public participation.
Keywords: policy making, interest group representation, public participation, water policy
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation