Academic Engagement and Commercialisation: A Review of the Literature on University-Industry Relations
55 Pages Posted: 20 Jun 2012 Last revised: 19 Sep 2013
Date Written: June 20, 2012
A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university-industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists’ involvement in these activities to which we refer as ‘academic engagement’. Apart from extracting findings that are generalisable across studies, we ask how academic engagement differs from commercialization, defined as intellectual property creation and academic entrepreneurship. We identify the individual, organizational and institutional antecedents and consequences of academic engagement, and then compare these findings with the antecedents and consequences of commercialization. Apart from being more widely practiced, academic engagement is distinct from commercialization in that it is closely aligned with traditional academic research activities, and pursued by academics to access resources supporting their research agendas. We conclude by identifying future research needs, opportunities for methodological improvement and policy interventions.
(Published version available via open access)
Keywords: University-industry relations, technology transfer, academic entrepreneurship, commercialisation, collaborative research, academic consulting
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