Wartime Violence and Post-War Collective Action: The Case of Agricultural Concessions in Mozambique

25 Pages Posted: 15 Jul 2012 Last revised: 9 Jan 2015

See all articles by Topher McDougal

Topher McDougal

Kroc School of Peace Studies, USD; Center on Conflict, Development & Peacebuilding, Graduate Institute

Raul Caruso

Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Milan

Date Written: 2012

Abstract

Over the past decade, the Government of Mozambique, widely hailed as a paragon of successful post-conflict development policy, has focused its economic aspirations on the promise of biofuel exports. To that end, it has made hundreds of agricultural concessions to foreign and domestic corporations in the biofuels industry. In response, local groups have sought to protect their food security by opposing the concessions politically and obtaining land grants that might buffer against their possible adverse effects to food security. We seek to whether the magnitude and recentness of violent events during Mozambique’s 16-year civil war has determined the success of communities’ efforts to oppose agricultural concessions and secure community land grants. We hypothesize that violence may weaken the ability of community institutions to prevent their lands from being expropriated as agricultural concessions. We test this, and two alternative, hypotheses using GIS-generated data at the district level on biofuels concessions, recognized community landholdings, and civil war events. Controlling for factors such as market access and district NGO operations, we find that while the the recentness of violence may actually galvanize community cohesion and reinvigorate local institutional capacity, the intensity of violence plays a more nuanced role, associated, as it is, with higher levels of both corporate concessions (locally undesirable) and community land grants (local desirable). We conclude with a discussion of implications for post-conflict development policy.

Keywords: civil war, development policy, agriculture, biofuels, concessions, community land grants, Mozambique

JEL Classification: D74, N47, N57, O13, O25, Q15, Q16, Q18

Suggested Citation

McDougal, Topher and Caruso, Raul, Wartime Violence and Post-War Collective Action: The Case of Agricultural Concessions in Mozambique (2012). APSA 2012 Annual Meeting Paper, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2107202

Topher McDougal (Contact Author)

Kroc School of Peace Studies, USD ( email )

5998 Alcala Park
San Diego, CA 92110
United States

Center on Conflict, Development & Peacebuilding, Graduate Institute ( email )

Rue de Lausanne 132
P.O. Box 136
Geneva, 1211
Switzerland

Raul Caruso

Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Milan ( email )

20123 Milano
Italy

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