Climate Variability and Food Grains Production in India
St. Mary's College (Autonomous) - Economics Department
July 30, 2012
A large part of the Indian agriculture depends on monsoon so that the market of agriculture, essential commodities shows fluctuation due to early/ delayed arrived of monsoon. The rapid increase in population and economic development has led to severe environmental degradation that undermines the environmental resource base upon which sustainable development depends. The economics of environmental pollution, depletion and degradation of resources have in fact been neglected as compared to the issues of growth and expansion. India has been no exceptions to this worldwide phenomenon. The trends of environmental deterioration in India, because of the substantial increase in its population, have been far more prominent as compared to other developing economies. This paper reviews evidences on the climate change challenge; and assesses the impact of climate change on agriculture and food security in India. This paper also estimates the impact of climate change on Indian agriculture.
Estimations predict that the area under food grain, for instance fell from 126.18 mha to 122.23 mha during the period from 1975–76 to 2008–09, the production registered an increase from 121.03 Mt. to 234.47 Mt. during that period. The food grain production looked quite impressive in 2008-09, which is more than thrice the production of 74.23 million tons in the year 1966-67. However the country faces major challenges to increase its food production to the tune of 300 million tonnes by 2020 in order to feed its ever-growing population, which is likely to reach 1.30 billion by the year 2020. To meet the demand for food from this increased population, the country’s farmers need to produce more food grains by 2020. The study also indicates that there is a large scale fluctuation in the area under the cultivation in the Kharif season.
Keywords: economic development, food grain, Indian agriculture, sustainable resources
JEL Classification: A10
Date posted: July 30, 2012