Cultural Bias: Gymnasts, Judges, and Bilateral Trade Agreements

The Journal of Sport, Forthcoming

13 Pages Posted: 4 Sep 2012 Last revised: 26 Sep 2016

See all articles by Brian Callahan

Brian Callahan

Seton Hall University

Sean E. Mulholland

Western Carolina University

Kurt W. Rotthoff

Seton Hall University - W. Paul Stillman School of Business

Date Written: September 25, 2016

Abstract

Bilateral trade agreements may arise from and enhance shared cultural norms across countries. Greater cultural understanding or similarities may be revealed through a number of avenues. We investigate one particular avenue: the judging of gymnastic performances. Using execution and difficulty scores from the 2009 World Gymnastics Championships, we find that gymnasts realize a greater return in terms of execution score for each bump in difficulty when the home countries of the judge and the athlete share a bilateral trade agreement.

Keywords: Cultural Bias, Trading Bias, Sports, Gymnastics

JEL Classification: F1, J71, L83

Suggested Citation

Callahan, Brian and Mulholland, Sean E. and Rotthoff, Kurt W., Cultural Bias: Gymnasts, Judges, and Bilateral Trade Agreements (September 25, 2016). The Journal of Sport, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2140469 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2140469

Brian Callahan

Seton Hall University ( email )

400 S Orange Avenue
South Orange, NJ 07079
United States

Sean E. Mulholland

Western Carolina University ( email )

United States

HOME PAGE: http://faculty.wcu.edu/semulholland/

Kurt W. Rotthoff (Contact Author)

Seton Hall University - W. Paul Stillman School of Business ( email )

400 S Orange Avenue
JH 674
South Orange, NJ 07079
United States
973-761-9102 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://pirate.shu.edu/~rotthoku/

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