The Curious History of Fourth Amendment Searches

31 Pages Posted: 1 Oct 2012 Last revised: 13 Mar 2018

Orin S. Kerr

University of Southern California Gould School of Law

Date Written: September 30, 2012

Abstract

In United States v. Jones, 132 S.Ct. 945 (2012), the Supreme Court restored the trespass test of Fourth Amendment law: Any government conduct that is a trespass onto persons, houses, papers, or effects is a Fourth Amendment 'search.' According to the Court, the trespass test had controlled the search inquiry before the reasonable expectation of privacy test was introduced in Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967). Although Katz had rejected the trespass test, Jones restored it. This essay examines the history of the Fourth Amendment search doctrine and reaches the surprising conclusion that the trespass test never existed. Pre-Katz decisions did not adopt a trespass test, and instead grappled with many of the same questions that the Court has focused on when applying the reasonable expectation of privacy test. The idea that trespass controlled before Katz turns out to be a myth of the Katz Court: Katz mischaracterized Fourth Amendment history to justify a break from prior precedent. Jones thus restores a test that never actually existed. The essay concludes by considering both the doctrinal and theoretical implications of the surprising history of the Fourth Amendment search doctrine.

Keywords: Fourth Amendment, Katz, reasonable expectation of privacy

JEL Classification: K14, K42

Suggested Citation

Kerr, Orin S., The Curious History of Fourth Amendment Searches (September 30, 2012). 2012 Supreme Court Review 67 (2013).. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2154611

Orin S. Kerr (Contact Author)

University of Southern California Gould School of Law ( email )

699 Exposition Boulevard
Los Angeles, CA 90089
United States

HOME PAGE: http://gould.usc.edu/faculty/?id=73523

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