Then and Now: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part VII

32 Pages Posted: 10 Oct 2012 Last revised: 18 Nov 2012

See all articles by Vivek Wadhwa

Vivek Wadhwa

Center for Entrepreneurship and Research Commercialization, Pratt School of Engineering; Stanford University - Arthur & Toni Rembe Rock Center for Corporate Governance

AnnaLee Saxenian

University of California, Berkeley - School of Information

Francis Daniel Siciliano

Stanford Law School

Date Written: October 1, 2012

Abstract

The period of unprecedented expansion of immigrant-led entrepreneurship that characterized the 1980s and 1990s has come to a close. Today, the growth rate of immigrant-founded companies nationwide, at 24.3 percent, has plateaued. In the high-tech hub of Silicon Valley, the proportion of immigrant-founded companies has dropped from 52.4 percent during 1995-2005 to 43.9 percent during 2006-2012.

Immigrant founders of engineering and technology companies have employed roughly 560,000 workers and generated an estimated $63 billion dollars in sales during this time. While the rate of growth of immigrant entrepreneurship has stagnated, these numbers nonetheless underscore the continuing importance of high-skilled immigrants to the maintenance and expansion of the national economy. These findings are interestingly complex, since the two major skilled-immigrant groups — Indian and Chinese — are starting companies at higher rates than they did previously. Historically and today, the United States continues to benefit directly from the contributions of such immigrants. Far from expendable, high-skilled immigrants will remain a critical asset for maintaining U.S. competitiveness in the global economy.

Keywords: immigrant, immigration, entrepreneur, HSI, high skill, highly skilled, policy, economy

Suggested Citation

Wadhwa, Vivek and Saxenian, AnnaLee and Siciliano, Francis Daniel, Then and Now: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part VII (October 1, 2012). Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Research Paper, Stanford Public Law Working Paper No. 2159875, Rock Center for Corporate Governance at Stanford University Working Paper No. 127, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2159875 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2159875

Vivek Wadhwa (Contact Author)

Center for Entrepreneurship and Research Commercialization, Pratt School of Engineering ( email )

Durham, NC 27708
United States

Stanford University - Arthur & Toni Rembe Rock Center for Corporate Governance ( email )

Crown Quadrangle 559 Nathan Ab
Stanford, CA 94305-8610
United States

AnnaLee Saxenian

University of California, Berkeley - School of Information ( email )

102 South Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720-4600
United States

Francis Daniel Siciliano

Stanford Law School ( email )

559 Nathan Abbott Way
Stanford, CA 94305-8610
United States

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