26 Pages Posted: 20 Oct 2012
Date Written: October 2012
Humans run on a fuel called food. Yet economists and other social scientists rarely study what people eat. We provide simple evidence consistent with the existence of a link between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and high well-being. In cross-sectional data, happiness and mental health rise in an approximately dose-response way with the number of daily portions of fruit and vegetables. The pattern is remarkably robust to adjustment for a large number of other demographic, social and economic variables. Well-being peaks at approximately 7 portions per day. We document this relationship in three data sets, covering approximately 80,000 randomly selected British individuals, and for seven measures of well-being (life satisfaction, WEMWBS mental well-being, GHQ mental disorders, self-reported health, happiness, nervousness, and feeling low). Reverse causality and problems of confounding remain possible. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our analysis, how government policy-makers might wish to react to it, and what kinds of further research -- especially randomized trials -- would be valuable.
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation
Blanchflower, David G. and Oswald, Andrew J. and Stewart-Brown, Sarah, Is Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables? (October 2012). NBER Working Paper No. w18469. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2164593