Confirmatory Tetrad Analysis in PLS Path Modeling

Posted: 17 Nov 2012 Last revised: 4 Mar 2013

See all articles by Siggi Gudergan

Siggi Gudergan

Newcastle Business School

Christian M. Ringle

Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH)

Sven Wende

Independent

Alexander Will

Independent

Date Written: 2008

Abstract

The authors propose a CTA-PLS assessment routine for measurement models. This routine applies confirmatory tetrad analysis (CTA) in a manner which is consistentwith partial least squares (PLS) pathmodeling assumptions. The conceptualization employs a bootstrapping procedure to accomplish an appropriate statistical test examining vanishing tetrads in CTA-PLS. The approach allows distinguishing a formative indicator specification from a reflective indicator specification. Applications using experimental and empirical data demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of CTA-PLS. As a means of evaluating PLS path modeling results, the routine assists researchers in avoiding potentially unrepresentative consequences of measurement model misspecification.

Keywords: formative, measurement model, partial least squares, path modeling, PLS, reflective, statistical test, SEM, structural equation modeling

JEL Classification: A00

Suggested Citation

Gudergan, Siggi and Ringle, Christian M. and Wende, Sven and Will, Alexander, Confirmatory Tetrad Analysis in PLS Path Modeling (2008). Journal of Business Research, Vol. 61, No. 12, 2008, pp. 1238-1249, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2176457

Siggi Gudergan

Newcastle Business School ( email )

City Campus East – 231
Newcastle-Upon-Tyne NE1 8ST, NE1 8ST
Australia

Christian M. Ringle (Contact Author)

Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH) ( email )

Am Schwarzenberg-Campus 4
Hamburg, 21073
Germany

HOME PAGE: http://www.tuhh.de/hrmo

Sven Wende

Independent ( email )

Alexander Will

Independent ( email )

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