The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success?
Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 131, No. 6, 2005
53 Pages Posted: 11 Jan 2013
Date Written: January 10, 2013
Numerous studies show that happy individuals are successful across multiple life domains, including marriage, friendship, income, work performance, and health. The authors suggest a conceptual model to account for these findings, arguing that the happiness–success link exists not only because success makes people happy, but also because positive affect engenders success. Three classes of evidence — crosssectional, longitudinal, and experimental — are documented to test their model. Relevant studies are described and their effect sizes combined meta-analytically. The results reveal that happiness is associated with and precedes numerous successful outcomes, as well as behaviors paralleling success. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that positive affect — the hallmark of well-being — may be the cause of many of the desirable characteristics, resources, and successes correlated with happiness. Limitations, empirical issues, and important future research questions are discussed.
Keywords: happiness, subjective well-being, positive affect, positive emotions, meta-analysis
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