Impact of Electric Vehicles on High-Voltage Grids: A Swiss Case Study
31 Pages Posted: 6 Feb 2013 Last revised: 13 May 2013
Date Written: May 13, 2013
An increasing number of electric vehicles (EV) will have an impact on required capacity of transmission and distribution grids. For target grid planning, it is essential to identify local impact in terms of infrastructure overloads. We study the impact of EV charging loads on the Swiss high-voltage grid under different EV penetration and pricing scenarios. The simulation model uses real driving profiles, substation load data from a Swiss grid operator and Swiss electricity prices.
The results indicate that under flat electricity tariffs and EV penetration levels around 16 % the current substation capacity will be sufficient to cover additional EV charging load. However, at higher penetration levels a number of substations will be overloaded. More significantly, the introduction of market-based variable electricity rates for EV charging may induce substation overloads already at 16 % penetration levels. These results signify that EV charging coordination is required at high EV penetration levels and that exogenous price incentives give rise to strong over-coordination effects.
Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Power Grid, Agent-based Modeling
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