Migration-Induced Transfers of Norms: The Case of Female Political Empowerment
37 Pages Posted: 11 Feb 2013
Date Written: September 17, 2012
It is recognized that affirmative action, as anti-discriminatory policies whose aim is to beneﬁt an underrepresented group, is a key driver of progress for women. However, the role of migrants in helping female voice from abroad has not been addressed yet. This paper empirically investigates the effect of international migration on the parliamentary participation of women left behind following the brand new strand of literature on ‘transfers of norms.’ Panel data from 1960 to 2000 allows us to take into account selection due to women’s eligibility, observed and unobserved heterogeneity. After having controlled for traditional political and non political factors, we show that total international migration to countries with higher female political empowerment signiﬁcantly increases the female parliamentary shares in sending countries.
Keywords: International Migration, Gender Discrimination, Panel Data, Sample Selection
JEL Classification: J16, D72, F22, C33
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