University of Victoria
Deirdre K. Mulligan
University of California, Berkeley - School of Information
June 7, 2012
Privacy codes of practice have extensive histories in a number of countries outside the United States. At various times, they have been adopted to anticipate privacy legislation, to supplement privacy legislation, to preempt privacy legislation, and to implement privacy legislation. This paper draws upon international experiences and interviews with chief privacy officers to offer important lessons for American policymakers about how codes of practice might best encourage privacy protection on the ground.
Despite obvious differences, the Canadian policy experience may be especially instructive. Private sector regulation was originally based on a bottom-up approach through which legislation, called the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act of 2000, was based on a voluntarily negotiated standard through the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). This in turn was based on existing sectoral codes of practice, of the kind envisaged by the U.S. Department of Commerce. What has been the experience over the last decade? What useful lessons can be drawn for U.S. policy? What are the economic, technological, legal, and social conditions under which codes of practice might promote better privacy protection?
Number of Pages in PDF File: 35
Keywords: privacy, codes of conduct, internet governance
Date posted: May 9, 2013 ; Last revised: July 13, 2014