College Athlete Representations in Sports Video Games

Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, Vol. 6, pp. 57-80, 2013

25 Pages Posted: 17 Mar 2013 Last revised: 1 Nov 2016

See all articles by Galen Clavio

Galen Clavio

Indiana University

Anastasios Kaburakis

Saint Louis University - Richard A. Chaifetz School of Business

David A. Pierce

Ball State University

Patrick Walsh

Indiana University

Heather Jane Lawrence

Ohio University - College of Business, Department of Sports Administration

Date Written: March 15, 2013

Abstract

This study sought to gauge college sport video-game consumers’ ability to identify National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) college football players, whose likenesses are featured in such games. The study also measured whether consumers perceived the use of athletes’ likenesses as sponsorship of these games, as well as whether certain demographic, usage, and other criteria may influence their positions on whether athletes should be compensated for such use, in excess of their current athletic scholarships. Findings point to the ability of consumers to identify athletes in the video games overall, and at a significantly higher percentage for nationally known football players whose likenesses are utilized in the games. Unsurprisingly, knowledge of college football as a sport, and of the video game series itself, significantly correlated with increased likelihood of identifying digital representations of real-life players. These and other findings, and their implications for NCAA policy and pending litigation related to student-athlete likenesses, are discussed.

Keywords: NCAA, Rights of Publicity, Amateurism, Intellectual Property, Empirical legal research, survey evidence, likeness, video games, digital representation, consumer behavior, likelihood of confusion

JEL Classification: C42, C49, D11, K10, K19, K20, K29, K30, K39, K40, K41, K49, O34

Suggested Citation

Clavio, Galen E. and Kaburakis, Anastasios and Pierce, David A. and Walsh, Patrick and Lawrence, Heather Jane, College Athlete Representations in Sports Video Games (March 15, 2013). Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, Vol. 6, pp. 57-80, 2013, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2234228

Galen E. Clavio

Indiana University ( email )

1025 E. 7th Street
SPH 112
Bloomington, IN 47405
United States
8128553367 (Phone)

Anastasios Kaburakis (Contact Author)

Saint Louis University - Richard A. Chaifetz School of Business ( email )

3674 Lindell Blvd
Davis-Shaughnessy Hall 407
St. Louis, MO 63108-3397
United States

David A. Pierce

Ball State University ( email )

Muncie, IN 47306-0340
United States

Patrick Walsh

Indiana University ( email )

1025 E. 7th Street
Kines. Dept. PH 174
Bloomington, IN IN 47405
United States
(812) 856-0868 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://info.publichealth.indiana.edu/sb/page/normal/1625.html

Heather Jane Lawrence

Ohio University - College of Business, Department of Sports Administration ( email )

Athens, OH 45701-2979
United States

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