Maternal-Fetal Transmission HIV Infection
The International Conference Education and Creativity for a Knowledge Based Society – Medicine and Dental Medicine, 2012
Posted: 20 Mar 2013
Date Written: 2012
In the last 20 years there have been numerous epidemiological studies which have quantified the risk of transmitting maternal-fetal HIV infection in different population groups by tracking children born of HIV positive mothers in order to determine the proportion of those infected - the risk/transmission rate. Several factors discussed include influence transmission of maternal-fetal, e.g. breast feeding, prematurity, maternal viral load, etc.
We summarize the risk factors as follows: Clinically speaking: advanced maternal disease, illicit drug use during pregnancy, preterm birth (<37 weeks), breastfeeding, non-treatment; In terms of laboratory results: high viral load, low CD4, anemia, low levels of vitamin A; In terms of obstetrical: time from rupture of membranes for more than 4 hours; corioamniotita, cervico-vaginal infection, use of invasive procedures (amniocentesis etc.). Presence of hemorrhage during labor; viral factors: type, subtype, genotype, phenotype, virus resistance to antiretrovirals.
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