Property in Brands

‘Property in Brands: The Commodification of Conversation’ in H. Howe and J. Griffiths (eds) Property Concepts in Intellectual Property Law (Cambridge: CUP 2013), Forthcoming

36 Pages Posted: 20 Mar 2013

See all articles by Dev Saif Gangjee

Dev Saif Gangjee

Faculty of Law, University of Oxford

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: March 19, 2013


This paper traces the emergence of a new res or object of protection within European trade mark law. Proprietary rights in trade marks have conventionally been premised upon the mark’s ability to communicate useful information; namely, indicating the commercial source of goods or services. Granting exclusive rights to control the use of a mark preserves its ability to reliably signal origin. Contemporary EU trade mark law goes further and protects the more expansive brand dimension associated with a successful trade mark. The Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) has enabled this by recognising not only the origin indication function of marks, but also their advertising, investment and communication functions as well. The brand is a remarkably elusive and protean, yet undeniably valuable, intangible. So what are the doctrinal tools and techniques available to courts, registrars and legal practitioners, enabling them to work with such elusive subject matter? What are the corresponding assumptions about brand creation and sustenance that reinforce these techniques? And can they be reconciled with recent conceptualisations of branding emerging from marketing and consumer studies research? Since brand protection is a controversial development within European trade mark law, this paper unpacks the manner in which the brand is conceived of within European legal doctrine. The ECJ situates branding within a one-way broadcast model, while contemporary marketing research emphasises that brand formation is dialogic and iterative. The ECJ’s approach to brand propertization is therefore not only inaccurate in presuming single author brand creation, but also deeply troubling since it marginalizes consumer agency and reinforces the exploitation of their immaterial labour through the instrumentality of trade mark law.

Keywords: brands, trade mark, trademark, ECJ, property theory, intellectual property

Suggested Citation

Gangjee, Dev S., Property in Brands (March 19, 2013). ‘Property in Brands: The Commodification of Conversation’ in H. Howe and J. Griffiths (eds) Property Concepts in Intellectual Property Law (Cambridge: CUP 2013), Forthcoming, Available at SSRN: or

Dev S. Gangjee (Contact Author)

Faculty of Law, University of Oxford ( email )

St Hilda's College
Cowley Place
Oxford, OX4 1DY
United Kingdom

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