48 Capabilities of Highly Educated People: Towards Defining Customer Requirements for Educations Institutions - What Streets of Hard Knocks and Schools/Colleges Are Supposed by High Performers in Diverse Fields & Users of School Graduates to Provide
Journal of Policy Studies, No. 29, July 2008
24 Pages Posted: 4 Apr 2013
Date Written: July 1, 2008
RESEARCH QUESTIONS -- causes of top performance in traditional fields, effective operations across disciplines, & solving problem in gaps between fields 1. What causes certain people to rise to the top of all traditional disciplines? 2. What is a scientific basis for cross-discipline work? 3. What will solve the narrowness problem of traditional disciplines causing more and more problems to fall in the cracks between them? 4. Is there such a thing as “educatedness” distinct from effectiveness and creativity, such that people can be effective and/or creative in various ways yet underperform for lack of “educatedness”? The Excellence Science research project got 315 eminent people in 63 strata of society, half American, half global, to nominate what enabled the best people in their own field to rise to the top, producing 54 orthogonal fields, cutting across all traditional fields and determining who rises to their tops, then they were asked to nominate 150 people in each of those 54 orthogonals. One of those orthogonals was “educatedness”. This paper reports what 150 highly educated-acting people, thusly nominated, said constituted their own “educatedness” and “educatedness” as they encounter it in others. In doing so it provides answers, some quite partial, to all the above research questions.
RESEARCH APPROACH & METHOD -- two level nomination process identifies highly educated acting people asked to specify what educatedness is: 1. tap social consensus on what “highly educated people” are capable of, if it is there and accessible via indirect approaches 2. to bypass and/or heal ideological factions blocking policies to promote higher levels of educatedness attainment 3. by asking a highly diverse set of eminent people to nominate the most “highly educated-acting” people that they know 4. then surveying those “highly educated acting” people for what constitutes, in their view, their own “educatedness” 5. then surveying them for what behaviors and capabilities they expect from highly educated persons like themselves 6. get both representational and relational definitions of educatedness from these “highly educated-acting” persons
LITERATURE POINTS -- Philosophers of education have distinguished education from learning (Arendt, 1954. 1993), procedural from declarative knowledge (Russell and Norvig, 2003), literacy in one’s own civilization from literacy in handling diverse civilizations (Geertz, 1983), training for performing existing social roles from training for inventing new social roles from training for refounding existing social roles on new technical and social substrates (Brown and Duguid, 2000), educating in order to socialize kids to your favored values from educating to free kids from your favored values (Anderson, 1983). These distinctions, are lost in a clutter of ideological conflicts about what sorts of human beings “to make” via education system Goliaths.
GET BEYOND 5 DYSFUNCTIONS -- Five dysfunctions in policy discussions by publics and policy makers on “educating” and what it is to produce, from ideological contexts of discussion, are identified in this paper. Nevertheless, there might be considerable social consensus on what “educated person behavior” is, in various situations, available, perhaps, if we approach people outside of their usual ideological contexts. This paper reports the tapping of that latent consensus using artificial intelligence techniques from expert system building “protocol analysis” and customer requirements assessment techniques from total quality programs. The model it produced potentially resolves the five dysfunctions in policy discussions of “educating” and its intended outcomes. 150 people, nominated as “highly educated-acting” by 315 eminent people, half American, half global, in 63 strata of society, were given surveys asking them in over 20 diverse ways what their own “educatedness” was and what “educatedness” was in others. This paper reports a thorough bottom up categorization of their collective answers.
RESEARCH RESULTS -- two categorical models of the 48 capabilities shared by most “highly educated-acting” people, one from 150 highly educated people and another from philosophers of education, for comparison purposes. Content analysis of survey results was done, marking behaviors unique to educatedness, marking distinctions of educatedness from effectiveness and creativity, naming marked ideas, grouping similar such ideas, ordering them, resulting in a model having 48 distinct dimensions of “educated person behavior” (each dimension of the 48 in the model was mentioned by at least 20 nominees). The same procedures were applied to texts by well cited philosophers of education, getting their behaviors of educated-acting people to form a basis of comparison with the first model. Use of the first model to assess the degree of “educatedness”, produced by various institutions and instructors, and to specify exact solutions, for certain hard-flaws-to-correct in business persons, that any manager encounters, is described.
Keywords: educatedness, learning, cross-discipline, sciences of the artificial, tacit knowledge, communities of practice, procedural literacy, excellence science
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