Hybrid Innovation in Meiji, Japan

26 Pages Posted: 18 Apr 2013

See all articles by Tom Nicholas

Tom Nicholas

Harvard University - Entrepreneurial Management Unit

Date Written: May 2013


Japan’s hybrid innovation system during the Meiji era provides a useful laboratory for examining the effectiveness of complementary incentives to patents. Patents were introduced in 1885, and by 1911 1.2 million mostly nonpecuniary prizes were awarded at 8,503 competitions. Prizes provided a strong boost to patents, especially in less developed prefectures, and they also induced large spillovers of technical knowledge in prefectures adjacent to those with prizes, relative to distant control prefectures without prizes. Linking competition expenditures with the expected market value of patents induced by the prizes permits a cost–benefit assessment of the prize competitions to be made.

Suggested Citation

Nicholas, Tom, Hybrid Innovation in Meiji, Japan (May 2013). International Economic Review, Vol. 54, Issue 2, pp. 575-600, 2013, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2253138 or http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iere.12007

Tom Nicholas (Contact Author)

Harvard University - Entrepreneurial Management Unit ( email )

Cambridge, MA 02163
United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics