Download this Paper Open PDF in Browser

Cultural Trends as Seen in Ngrams: Karl Polanyi with a Hayekian Twist

23 Pages Posted: 23 Apr 2013 Last revised: 14 Nov 2013

Daniel B. Klein

George Mason University - Department of Economics

Date Written: April 22, 2013

Abstract

In this very casual paper, I reproduce results from the Google Ngram Viewer. The main thrust is to show that around 1880 governmentalization of society and culture began to set in — a great transformation, as Karl Polanyi called it. But that great transformation came as a reaction to commercial society and liberalism, the first great transformation. I affirm a congruence between the narrative of Polanyi and that of Friedrich Hayek, and side with Hayek’s attitudes about both transformations. The Ngrams shown include liberty, constitutional liberty, faith, eternity, God, social gospel, college professors, psychology, economics, sociology, anthropology, political science, criminology, new liberalism, old liberalism, public school system, Pledge of Allegiance, income tax, government control, run the country, lead the country, lead the nation, national unity, priorities, social justice, equal opportunity, economic inequality, forced to work, living wage, social needs, our society, bundle of rights, property rights, capitalism, right-wing, left-wing, virtue, wisdom, prudence, benevolence, diligence, fortitude, propriety, ought, good conduct, bad conduct, good works, evil, sentiments, impartial, objective, subjective, normative, values, preferences, beliefs, and information.

Keywords: Ngram, governmentalization, liberalism, virtue, liberty, wisdom

JEL Classification: A11, A13, B0

Suggested Citation

Klein, Daniel B., Cultural Trends as Seen in Ngrams: Karl Polanyi with a Hayekian Twist (April 22, 2013). GMU Working Paper in Economics No. 13-10. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2255246 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2255246

Daniel B. Klein (Contact Author)

George Mason University - Department of Economics ( email )

4400 University Drive
Fairfax, VA 22030
United States

Paper statistics

Downloads
852
Rank
22,329
Abstract Views
3,683