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Testing the Results of Municipal Mixed-Use Zoning Ordinances: A Novel Methodological Approach

26 Pages Posted: 7 May 2013  

Carol L. Cannon

The CDM Group, Inc.

Sue Thomas

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE)

Ryan D. Treffers

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE)

Mallie J. Paschall

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE)

Lauren Heumann

University of California, Berkeley

Gregory W. Mann

California State University, East Bay

Dashiell O. Dunkell

5 Gyres Institute

Saskia Nauenberg

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)

Date Written: May 6, 2013

Abstract

Municipal mixed-use zoning (MUZ) is one public health strategy to create more walkable neighborhoods by reducing the separation of daily activities. This study uses a novel data-gathering methodology to evaluate municipal zoning ordinances in twenty-two California cities in conjunction with the walkability potential of resulting mixed-use zones, to explore the extent to which variations in uses mandated by MUZ ordinances are correlated with variations in walking opportunities. We find that, after controlling for population, socioeconomic status, and zone size, significant relationships exist between the range and precision of uses mandated by MUZ ordinances and the mixture and breadth of walking destinations in these zones. The study also demonstrates that analysis of municipal zoning codes and a novel data-gathering methodology yield valid data. The analysis of MUZ ordinances is a significant complement to other approaches to measuring walkability and can be used across cities.

Keywords: Mixed use, zoning, walkability, public health law, municipal ordinances

Suggested Citation

Cannon, Carol L. and Thomas, Sue and Treffers, Ryan D. and Paschall, Mallie J. and Heumann, Lauren and Mann, Gregory W. and Dunkell, Dashiell O. and Nauenberg, Saskia, Testing the Results of Municipal Mixed-Use Zoning Ordinances: A Novel Methodological Approach (May 6, 2013). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2261295 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2261295

Carol Lynn Cannon (Contact Author)

The CDM Group, Inc. ( email )

7500 Old Georgetown Road
Suite 900
Bethesda, MD 20814
United States

Sue Thomas

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) ( email )

P.O. Box 7042
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
United States
(831) 621.7937 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.pire.org

Ryan D. Treffers

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) ( email )

P.O. Box 7042
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
United States
415-830-3275 (Phone)

Mallie J. Paschall

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) ( email )

11720 Beltsville Drive, Suite 900
Calverton, MD 20705
United States

Lauren Heumann

University of California, Berkeley ( email )

310 Barrows Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720
United States

Gregory W. Mann

California State University, East Bay ( email )

25800 Carlos Bee Boulevard
Hayward, CA California 94542
United States

Dashiell O. Dunkell

5 Gyres Institute ( email )

550 E Rustic Rd
Santa Monica, CA 90402
United States

Saskia Nauenberg

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) ( email )

405 Hilgard Avenue
Box 951361
Los Angeles, CA 90095
United States

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