Water Hauling and Girls'School Attendance: Some New Evidence from Ghana

35 Pages Posted: 20 Apr 2016

See all articles by Celine Nauges

Celine Nauges

University of Queensland - School of Economics

Jon Strand

World Bank

Date Written: May 1, 2013

Abstract

In large parts of the world, a lack of home tap water burdens households as the water must be brought to the house from outside, at great expense in terms of effort and time. This paper studies how such costs affect girls'schooling in Ghana, with an analysis based on four rounds of the Demographic and Health Surveys. Using Global Positioning System coordinates, it builds an artificial panel of clusters, identifying the closest neighbors within each round. The results indicate a significant negative relation between girls'school attendance and water hauling activity, as a halving of water fetching time increases girls'school attendance by 2.4 percentage points on average, with stronger impacts in rural communities. The results seem to be the first definitive documentation of such a relationship in Africa. They document some of the multiple and wide population benefits of increased tap water access, in Africa and elsewhere.

Keywords: Town Water Supply and Sanitation, Water and Industry, Water Supply and Sanitation Governance and Institutions, Water Conservation, Water Use

Suggested Citation

Nauges, Céline and Strand, Jon, Water Hauling and Girls'School Attendance: Some New Evidence from Ghana (May 1, 2013). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 6443. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2265754

Céline Nauges

University of Queensland - School of Economics ( email )

Brisbane, QLD 4072
Australia

Jon Strand (Contact Author)

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

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