Innovation Ouverte: Vers La Génération 2.0 (Open Innovation: Toward the 2.0 Generation)
Encyclopédie de la Stratégie – Vuibert, 2014
47 Pages Posted: 28 May 2013 Last revised: 2 Jul 2014
Date Written: May 27, 2013
Open innovation is a hot topic in contemporary literature in economics and management of innovation. According to Chesbrough (2003), the adoption of an open innovation strategy is nothing less than the key to success for businesses. This highlights the fact that contemporary innovation is less often performed (only) in-house, through closed and fully integrated production, but is "open" in the sense that many actors are involved in the development at different stages of design and production. However, open innovation is a broad concept, a catch-all, which borders, forms and issues still need to be clarified. This is what we propose to do in this contribution.
First we define the concept of "open innovation" and we compare it with existing theories in economics and management of innovation. This leads us to distinguish the two sides of the open innovation: the "inside-out" and "outside-in" innovation and show that only the first is really new in management science. It also allows us to emphasize the importance of intellectual property rights (IPR), including patent, in the development and success of open innovation strategies.
In a second step we present the different forms of open innovation. We emphasize mainly the difference between traditional forms, not very open and somewhat interactive (e.g. a bilateral research collaboration between a company and an university) and those that have recently emerged and are much more open and interactive (eg, crowdsourcing and innovation with open source communities). We call the first "open innovation 1.0" and the second "open innovation 2.0", making reference to the importance of ICT, and of the Internet in particular, to facilitate the implementation of such type of innovation. As an example of open innovation 2.0 we present the case of open source software (FLOSS), with an emphasis on strategies and business models.
Finally, we analyze the strategic issues of open innovation for firms. Here, we distinguish between external and internal factors to the company. Regarding the first, we show that the technological regime (presence or not of network effects, the modular nature of the technology, the degree of appropriability, the more or less tacit nature of the knowledge base, etc.) plays a fundamental role in the choice of the strategy of innovation by the company. On internal factors, we show that companies must adapt themselves, implementing a specific organization in order to become truly creative firms. In particular, we establish a link between the ability of a company to organize to implement an open innovation strategy and the literature on dynamic capabilities.
Note: Downloadable document is in French.
Keywords: open innovation, dynamic capabilities, FLOSS, open source, firm organization
JEL Classification: O31, O32
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation